What was the purpose and history of Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Berlin?

  • The Original Free Walking Tour in Berlin

     When: Every day at 10am & 12pm Where: The meeting point is in front of Generator Berlin Alexanderplatz, Otto-Braun-Straße 65, 10178 Berlin, Germany. Next to the Entrance. Explore Berlin’s rich history and modern charm with our Free Walking Tour. This tour covers famous Berlin attractions, influential historical sights, stories of past wars, urban legends,… read more.



Sachsenhausen concentration camp was one of the largest Nazi concentration camps established in Germany during World War II. Located just outside Berlin, in Oranienburg, Sachsenhausen was operational from 1936 to 1945. It was initially built to house political prisoners, but later became a model camp for the entire concentration camp system. Let’s explore the purpose and history of Sachsenhausen in greater detail.

The Purpose of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp

Sachsenhausen concentration camp served several purposes for the Nazi regime:

  • Imprisonment and Punishment: The camp was primarily created to house and punish opponents of the Nazi regime, including political dissidents, Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists.
  • Forced Labor: Prisoners held in Sachsenhausen were subjected to forced labor, mainly in the form of production for the German war effort. They were employed in various industries such as manufacturing, construction, and armament production.
  • Experiments and Medical Research: Sachsenhausen was also used as a site for medical experiments and research conducted by Nazi doctors and scientists. Prisoners were subjected to inhumane experiments, often resulting in severe injuries or death.
  • Genocide and Mass Murder: Alongside its main functions, Sachsenhausen was also involved in the extermination of targeted groups, including Jews, Sinti and Roma, and others deemed racially or politically undesirable.

The History and Operation of Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp

Sachsenhausen concentration camp was established on the grounds of an abandoned brick factory. It was designed by the SS architect, Heinrich Himmler, with a focus on ensuring efficient control over the prisoners and maximum economic productivity. Here is a timeline of major events in the camp’s history:

1936 – 1942: The Early Years and Expansion

In 1936, construction of Sachsenhausen began and the first prisoners arrived. Initially, the camp held mainly political opponents of the Nazi regime. However, over time, the population of prisoners grew significantly, including people from various backgrounds and nationalities.

By 1938, Sachsenhausen had become a training center for SS concentration camp personnel. The camp was expanded, and new buildings, such as the infamous “Tower A,” were constructed. This tower served as the main entrance gate and administrative center for the entire camp complex.

In 1941, a designated “death zone” called Station Z was built within Sachsenhausen, equipped with gas chambers and crematoria for mass killings.

1942 – 1945: Height of Operation and Liberation

During this period, Sachsenhausen witnessed a significant increase in prisoner population due to mass arrests and deportations from occupied countries.

In 1942, the SS established a secret counterfeiting operation known as “Operation Bernhard” in Sachsenhausen. Its purpose was to produce counterfeit British pound notes as part of a strategy to destabilize the British economy.

The final days of the camp were marked by the SS’s efforts to conceal evidence of the atrocities committed within its walls. As the Soviet army advanced, prisoners were forced to embark on death marches in 1945.

Sachsenhausen was liberated by Soviet forces on April 22, 1945. It is estimated that around 30,000 prisoners died in the camp due to executions, medical experiments, forced labor, and malnutrition.

Visiting Sachsenhausen Today

Sachsenhausen concentration camp is now a memorial and museum dedicated to remembering the victims and educating visitors about the crimes committed during the Nazi era. It serves as a stark reminder of the atrocities that occurred.

Today, visitors can explore the various parts of the camp, including the prisoner barracks, crematorium, gas chamber, and several exhibits documenting the history of the camp and its victims.

Remember to approach the memorial with respect and empathy, as it represents a place of immense suffering and loss for countless individuals.

Visiting such historical sites is crucial in understanding the dark events of the past and serves as a reminder to strive for a more peaceful and tolerant future.




Scan the code